Tag Archives: democracy

The Essential Work of English Language Arts—and ELA Teachers—in Our Democracy

This post is written by member Dana Maloney. 

“We must awaken in order to continue our efforts to build a just, compassionate, and meaningful democracy.”Maxine Greene

danamaloneyThe longer I have taught English Language Arts (ELA)—28 years now—the more I have come to understand that what we do is not trivial or incidental; it is essential.

We can start with two reasons why our work is so important:

  1. Literature is life. When we read imaginative literature—whether prose, poetry or drama—we explore what it means to be alive and to be human. As one of my students remarked years ago, “Literature humanizes us.” We help students understand themselves, others, and the world. We help students crisscross the globe, step into other people’s shoes to see the world through their eyes, and more. Through all of this, we also help students deepen understandings of themselves and of their lives.
  2. We teach the most essential human skills: how to receive information from others and how to transmit information. This is literacy. Through reading and listening, we receive information; through writing and speaking, we transmit information.

Those reasons are so important in the lives of each of our students. However, they are not the only reasons why I think our work is so essential—and why I would posit that it is perhaps the most essential work within the school.

Here is why our work is absolutely essential: What we do in our classrooms protects and perpetuates democracy. John Dewey taught us this long ago, but we need to remind ourselves of this ultimate purpose and context of education.

In ELA classes, we empower students to use their voices and to be able to use the tools of literacy, including digital tools, to contribute to our democracy and to the world. Democracy is a system of government in which people use their literacy skills in order to run a country “of the people, by the people, for the people,” as President Lincoln noted in his Gettysburg Address.

The discourse in our democracy today, continuing even after the inauguration of the new president, illustrates the need for strong literacy skills. I believe that the following ideas help us cultivate strong literacy skills in our students:

  • Critical thinking is the essential filter through which we process information so that we do not simply believe everything we read or hear and so that we think before we speak or write. We encourage thinking when we give students hard questions, when we allow students to craft their own questions, and when we allow them to own the answers. We have to encourage students to ask good, open-ended questions—not leading ones. We have to offer students opportunities to exercise high-level critical thinking.
  • We can also ask students to synthesize across texts—including texts that offer different points of view (as many news sources do today). Our curriculum can reach for the highest levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy, including synthesis and creation that is informed by the consideration of multiple texts that present opposing information or perspectives.
  • We should not read texts for our students. As teachers, we have to be careful not to own the interpretations of texts. We should not present the text as a mystery for which the teacher has all the answers (e.g., a list of themes and symbols). Instead, we should offer texts to our students and ask students for their engaged readings of them. Of course, we want students to back up their readings with textual evidence and with strong reasoning. Great literature is ambiguous and thus allows for multiple ways of reading. This is one reason why high-merit, classic texts should have a strong place in our classrooms, even as we also embrace student choice in reading selections. Students need to own their questions; we need to create room for students to read texts through their own inquiry lenses.
  • We need to create opportunities for student exchange of readings and ideas via active listening and speaking. We need to require them to listen to each other—and to respond to each other. Discourse is a means through which we strengthen our thinking and our articulation of perspective.

To go one step further, I believe that not only is the discipline of ELA essential to the world today but we ELA teachers are as well.

As ELA teachers, we are in a unique position to help moderate readings of the news and of the world—and we can help cultivate healthy dialogue via spoken and written word. There are many ways in which this might happen, including via school and community events and via social media.

I have started to explore how we can view social media—not just the public forum of Twitter but also the “private” world of Facebook—as a form of digital classroom, with ourselves as moderators of civil discourse or even as discussion leaders (AKA teachers). I believe we can be creative in the ways in which we might do this.

I have been prompted by election and inauguration discourse to attempt to create some impact even in Facebook. This means some risk—moving beyond the easy, friendly discourse that characterized Facebook communication for me before. I am working on a book focused on “reading the text to read the world,” and I have started to transfer some of the content of the book to my Facebook posts.

I will leave off by sharing some of my posts from January 22, 2017. Through these, I also want to share with you some additional thoughts about how we can see the power of our work—and the potential impact all of us can make in our classrooms as well as outside of them:

As a teacher of reading, I would just encourage everyone to read well: Read the whole book, not just one page, and not just the Cliff Notes version. The book here is, of course, the one we are living in today—our world. We have a beautiful democracy which many men and women—including our ancestors—sacrificed their lives to build and to defend. At this moment, many people have their lives on the line for all of us–for our liberty, for justice, for all our rights. Therefore, I encourage everyone to defend our country by seeking the actual truth, not just a limited or false perception of it. Beware of blatant lies. Be aware that lying is an actual strategy, to manipulate people; diversionary tactics are also intentional strategies. Whether you are conservative or liberal, please do not give away our democratic ideals, which include those expressed in the First Amendment—including freedom of the press and the right to peaceful protest. Do not just believe all that you are told—all that you might want to believe. Seek the truth.

In response to this post, I received a comment, which prompted me to write:

Great literature may be fiction, but it is about truth: truth of human experience and more. Moreover, in true literature there are always multiple perspectives offered. Propaganda is one-sided; a true story has many sides, many points of view, and many voices—like democracy. I think we all have to LISTEN to and READ many perspectives to maintain our healthy democracy and to avoid losing it.

After the Facebook friend replied again to me and as we moved closer to agreement, I added:

Another thing I would add is that we have to be careful what we “say” in the social media world—with regard to selecting and sharing information. An English classroom can be a good analogy and training ground for discourse—if we encourage students to speak what they think (after time is given for thoughtful reflection) and if students also respond to each other, to challenge (civilly) each other’s’ statements—and thus to push every person’s separate thinking. We don’t push particular beliefs or interpretations (because literature, like life, is ambiguous), but we encourage thought—not just fast or shallow thought but careful thought that has processed perspectives and that continues to do so. This is also how public schools help nurture democratic citizens who not only tolerate but also embrace diversity of perspectives— not bullying of perspective, not control of truth.

Dana H. Maloney is the chair of the NCTE Achievement Awards in Writing Advisory Committee, the 2012 winner of the CEE James Moffett Award, and an Executive Board member of the New Jersey Council of Teachers of English. She teaches English at Tenafly High School in New Jersey. Her Twitter handle is @danahmaloney.

Literacy and the Election

2016-electionNovember 8 is Election Day in the United States. After all of the debates, commercials, advertisements and phone calls, voting in the local, state and national elections will soon be complete. How did you integrate the election into your classroom? What kinds of follow-up conversations will take place in the coming week? How will you discuss the election results? Check out these resources from NCTE and ReadWriteThink.org.

Listen about presidential elections in this podcast episode from ReadWriteThink.org.
Using a framework grounded in critical theory, the author describes how her first-grade students developed their literacy abilities while talking and writing about the a past presidential election in “Making Politics Primary: Exploring Critical Curriculum with Young Children“.

Students explore a variety of sources for information about voting in the lesson plan Voting! What’s It All About? They evaluate the information to determine if it is fact or opinion, and then create a graffiti wall about voting.

After researching political platforms of past presidents through primary sources and other resources, students create commercials for these presidents in Vote for Me! Making Presidential Commercials Using Avatars.

The author of “Spiritualizing English: Another Dimension of Literacy” argues for the necessity of civic literacy and responsibility, of educating students for citizenship. He urges educators to consider the visionary thoughts of James Moffett and others on spiritualizing teaching and learning—in particular, the idea of “[s]erving ourselves through serving our communities and redefining community in a global sense.”

Students analyze propaganda techniques used in pieces of literature and political advertisements in Propaganda Techniques in Literature and Online Political Ads. They then look for propaganda in other media, such as print ads and commercials.

In Analyzing the Stylistic Choices of Political Cartoonists, students explore and analyze the techniques that political (or editorial) cartoonists use and draw conclusions about why the cartoonists choose those techniques to communicate their messages.

The essay, “Literacy, Voting Rights, and the Citizenship Schools in the South, 1957–1970” examines the history of a massive literacy campaign called the Citizenship School Program that began as a response to the racist literacy tests that disenfranchised countless African American voters throughout the Southern United States between 1945 and 1965.

Rather than simply invoke citizenship as an ideal for their students to achieve, writing instructors should address the various possible meanings of the term, which represent divergent traditions of political thought as described in “In the Name of Citizenship: The Writing Classroom and the Promise of Citizenship“.

Reflecting (on) Democracy: Why Journalism Matters

This is #10 in a bi-montly series by NCTE member Alana Rome.  

Alana Rome

Two weeks ago, I wrote about my time in Montclair University’s Leadership Associates Program and how it prompted me to discuss scholastic journalism’s ability to nurture “the whole child.” It wasn’t until I received the Spring 2016 issue of Student Press Law Center’s Report magazine, though, that I realized another of LAP’s widely discussed topics also related to the importance of scholastic journalism: democracy.

In “Momentum swings toward legal protections for student journalists,” SPLC Executive Director Frank D. LoMonte said, “Scholastic journalism is finally receiving recognition as a resource worth saving, in part because of the recognized national crisis in preparing young people to participate intelligently in the political process.”

It wasn’t until I read LoMonte’s words that I realized the discussions I had all week at Montclair actually related not only to theoretical democracy in the classroom, but also, quite literally, to our country’s democracy outside the classroom. And that’s where the importance of scholastic journalism lies.

My first year teaching journalism will be a particularly special one because we are in the midst of arguably one of the most controversial and discussed president elections in our nation’s history. Coverage is abundant and ripe for discussion in a journalism classroom. Now is the best time to teach students how to use the news to inform themselves of presidential platforms, to analyze and evaluate the credibility of the news outlets in their coverage, or to read up on platform issues and see which ones line up with students’ beliefs and values.

Although not every school has a journalism program (which, consequently, is the crusade behind this entire blog series), these activities can certainly align with Common Core State Standards and find an appropriate place in the English classroom.

Without the analysis and inquiry taught in journalism, students may not take the time to educate themselves on issues that directly affect their lives, even though at least a quarter of them are old enough to vote and sway the polls. They may not even feel compelled to partake in the democratic process at all. This lack of civic participation goes against everything we hope to instill in our students.

Cutting scholastic journalism programs, however, is not the only thing stifling the survival of citizen participation in and preservation of our democracy; in many states, secondary and collegiate administration censorship is impeding students’ rights to free speech, as well.

In his“letter from the editor” for the Spring 2016 issue of Report, LoMonte includes a quote from U.S. Sen. Heidi Heitkamp, D-N.D. when she spoke to the Senate in March regarding such censorship: ‘“That is not an environment that values and empowers student voices,’ …‘and it’s not a climate that is conducive to effective and learning civic participation. We can and must do better.’”

This silencing from administration, unfortunately, does not cease when students graduate high school; a place typically known for increased academic and social freedom, the collegiate world is also experiencing bouts of censorship, as well; but that, I’m afraid, is a whole other topic for a whole other blog post…

Alana Rome is an English teacher, newspaper adviser for Trailblazer, and soon-to-be journalism teacher at Pascack Hills High School in Montvale, NJ. She has a bachelor’s degree in journalism and a master’s degree in English education, grades 7-12, both from Iona College. Alana is a contributor of English Leadership Quarterly and has provided professional development sessions at EdScape, Global Education Conference, and Columbia Scholastic Press Association on a variety of topics, including global awareness, authentic assessment, classroom technology integration and student goal-setting.